TitleGeneral Resilience to Cope with Extreme Events
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2012
AuthorsCarpenter, SR, Arrow, KJ, Barrett, S, Biggs, R, Brock, WA, Crepin, AS, Engstrom, G, Folke, C, Hughes, TP, Kautsky, N, Li, CZ, McCarney, G, Meng, K, Maler, KG, Polasky, S, Scheffer, M, Shogren, J, Sterner, T, Vincent, JR, Walker, B, Xepapadeas, A, de Zeeuw, A
JournalSustainability
Volume4
Issue12
Pagination3248-3259
ISBN Number2071-1050
Abstract

Resilience to specified kinds of disasters is an active area of research and practice. However, rare or unprecedented disturbances that are unusually intense or extensive require a more broad-spectrum type of resilience. General resilience is the capacity of social-ecological systems to adapt or transform in response to unfamiliar, unexpected and extreme shocks. Conditions that enable general resilience include diversity, modularity, openness, reserves, feedbacks, nestedness, monitoring, leadership, and trust. Processes for building general resilience are an emerging and crucially important area of research.

URLhttp://dx.doi.org/10.3390/su4123248
DOI10.3390/su4123248